In addition, Ness noted that state lawmakers can help address the wage gap by passing laws that prohibit employers from asking about salary history and protect employees from retaliation if they discuss pay.
Gov. Andrew Cuomo announced legislation Tuesday that aims to close the gender wage gap by banning all employers from asking prospective employees about their former salaries.
The deadline for firms and public sector organisations with more than 250 staff to publish data passed last week.
The gender pay gap is the difference between the average hourly earnings of men and women. It recorded a mean pay gap of -5.5% and median of -0.18%.
"I went over and interviewed with Goodyear in 1978, and I worked for Goodyear Tire Company for 19 years before I found out that the males were making 40 percent more than I was making for working the same job", Ledbetter told Self in January 2016. Those with "A-" grades include JPMorgan, Bank of New York Mellon, and Wells Fargo.
Apple revealed when filing its figures that 71pc of its top-earning employees were male and that men were paid more across the three subsidiaries it was required to report on, including Apple UK. See PA story INDUSTRY Gender. Nationally, white non-Hispanic women are typically paid 79 cents for every dollar paid to white, non-Hispanic men, Black women 63 cents and Latinas 54 cents.
The pay gap, no matter how important, is not the only pressing matter for the industry, of course. "We must do better".
"It reaffirms our concerns about the limitations of the gender pay gap regulations".
Some universities are going all-out to make sure their pay gaps are more equal.
The map below shows the head office addresses of more than 10,000 United Kingdom firms who filed reports.
The transportation sector's gender pay gap was relatively small compared with finance and construction with a 10.3% mean and 6.7% median figure. For instance, women and minorities might be more likely to be primary care physicians than higher-paid specialists, and women may choose specialties that aren't as lucrative (such as opting for being an obstetrician/gynecologist rather than a radiologist).
"Much of an organisation's pay gap comes down to how women and men are distributed through the ranks". A local advocate for women's rights says that while the gender pay gap has narrowed - it isn't narrow enough.
Molson Coors Brewing Co. said its wage gap was nearly six per cent and the difference in bonuses was 26 per cent, while McCain Foods (G.B.) Ltd. said its wage gap was nine per cent but women earned 72 per cent lower bonuses.
The report cites several complex factors that contribute to this trend. No one should have to choose between their job and taking care of a loved one, but all too often Americans are forced to lower their hours or take a lower paying job to care for a child, sick family member or aging parent. Motherhood incurs a pay penalty.
Women, she said, are still paid less for equal work. He pointed out that some boroughs, such as Lewisham, had minus figures.