Artistic impression of a multiverse - where our universe is only one of many.
Columbia University physicist Brian Greene describes the idea as the notion that "our universe is one of potentially numerous "slabs" floating in a higher-dimensional space, much like a slice of bread within a grander cosmic loaf", in his book "The Hidden Reality".
The researchers said it casts doubt on a Multiverse explaining the value of dark energy. Current theories, however, predict there should be rather more of it around than there appears to be. However, modern cosmology can not answer the question about the existence of life in other universes, since the studies conducted earlier suggested that a greater amount of energy will expand "nearby" worlds, which will not be planets, galaxies and stars. It stated that the small amount of dark energy causes the multiverse to be hospitable to life.
But the tiny amount may be better explained by an, as yet, undiscovered law of nature.
So far, so anthropic.
"Our simulations show that even if there was much more dark energy or even very little in the Universe then it would only have a minimal effect on star and planet formation, raising the prospect that life could exist throughout the Multiverse".
The global team of scientists made this discovery after creating a model of the universe using the tools of the EAGLE project (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments) - one of the most realistic simulations of the observed universe, which encompasses models for around 10,000 galaxies over a distance of 300 million light-years. This is a UK-based collaboration that models some 10,000 galaxies over a distance of 300 million-light years, and compares the results with actual observations from the Hubble Telescope and other observatories.
The results were a surprise. In such a scenario, life as we know it would not have formed, and the universe would be, in that sense, dead, like the rest of the multiverse which has the theoretically higher amount of dark energy.
A postgraduate student from Durham University's Institute for Computational Cosmology said that in our universe the unexplained dark energy looks like an irritating puzzle.
Due to be published in two related papers in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, the team used powerful computer modelling to see what would happen if more dark energy was added in our own universe, up to a few hundred times the amount observed.
The Multiverse theory states that our universe is only one in a large number of possible universes that have sparked into existence after the Big Bang.
That is, we just happen to live in a universe whose dark energy is small enough to enable the lovely galaxies and stars we see to form, permitting life as we know it.
"Our work shows that our ticket seems a little too lucky". Planet earth with its multiple life forms is an example of a special case in the multiverse.
"This is a problem for the Multiverse; a puzzle remains", he points out. Unlike any other force, dark energy doesn't slow down with time but actually keeps on accelerating, and it makes up around 70 percent of the entire universe, notes Science Alert.
In the early 1990's, theorists came up with many sorts of explanations about dark energy, according to them there is some field that creates cosmic acceleration, and they have given the solution a name.
"The formation of stars in a universe is a battle between the attraction of gravity, and the repulsion of dark energy", says co-author Richard Bower, also from Durham University.