The Ministry of Finance said in a statement the retaliatory measures were in response to the latest USA threat on July 11 to slap duties on US$200 billion of Chinese products, and to raise those tariffs from 10 per cent to 25 per cent.
The Chinese reaction is sure to ratchet up tensions with the Trump administration at the end of a week that saw stock markets rattled by the intensifying trade battle.
A ministry statement said, "China is forced to take countermeasures".
"Any unilateral threat or blackmail will only lead to intensification of conflicts and damage to the interests of all parties".
The threat came a day after Chinese officials appealed for dialogue based on "mutual respect", with Foreign Minister Wang Yi urging the United States on Thursday to remain "cool-headed".
Washington is expected to soon implement more tariffs on $21 billion in additional Chinese goods, which China has already announced it will match immediately. China responded with a 178.6 percent tariff on the roughly $1 billion in sorghum that the USA imports to China each year. "China is increasingly isolated with a weak economy".
"The US side has repeatedly escalated the situation against the interests of both enterprises and consumers", the Chinese Commerce Ministry said in its statement.
China's finance ministry unveiled new sets of additional tariffs on 5,207 goods imported from the United States, ranging from 5 to 25 per cent.
While the tariffs imposed by the European Union still remain in place, the bloc has agreed not to implement more while negotiators from Washington and Brussels attempt to thrash out a deal.