On Thursday, the US State Department said Chinese purchases of SU-35 aircraft and S-400 surface-to-air missiles breached a US sanctions law targeting Russian Federation over its alleged meddling in the 2016 US election and actions in Ukraine.
The EDD and Mr Li have been added to a Blocked Persons List, meaning any assets they hold in the USA are frozen and Americans are "generally prohibited" from doing business with them.
It also adds them to the Treasury Department's list of specially designated individuals with whom Americans are barred from doing business.
They also said that the U.S. could consider similar action against other countries taking delivery of Russian fighter jets and missiles.
"The Chinese side expresses strong indignation over the above-mentioned unreasonable practices of the United States side", foreign ministry spokesman Geng Shuang told a regular press briefing.
"We strongly urge the USA side to immediately correct the mistake and rescind the so-called sanctions, otherwise the USA side will necessarily bear responsibility for the consequences", he said, without giving details.
The U.S. President strengthened the legal basis for earlier imposed sanctions.
"As to other potential recipients of the S-400, we haven't made any determinations yet with respect to what to do about those, but you can be confident that we have spent an enormous amount of time talking about prospective purchases of things such as S-400s and Sukhois with people all around the world who may have been interested in such things and some who may still be", the official said.
The US will be adding 33 more people to its black list, some of whom have been indicted for interfering in the 2016 presidential election by hacking Democratic targets.
A federal special counsel is leading a criminal investigation of Russian interference in the USA election, and any possible cooperation with Trump's presidential campaign.
The United States has imposed sanctions against a Chinese military agency and its director for purchasing Russian military jets and missiles.
A senior administration official said: "The ultimate target of these sanctions is Russian Federation. It's meant to impose appropriate pressures on Russia in response to Russian malign acts", the official said.
"I am sure that these contracts will be executed in line with the schedule", Franz Klintsevich, a Russian member of parliament, was quoted as saying by Russia's Interfax news agency.
Security analysts in Asia said the move was largely symbolic and would only push Moscow and Beijing closer together.
However, a politician in Moscow said the sanctions would not affect Russian sales of military weapons to other countries.
"Both countries are opposed to what they see as USA bullying and these kind of actions will just push Beijing and Moscow even closer together", said Storey.
What did China do to earn these sanctions?China, which relies on technology for its military modernisation has stepped up its military ties with Russian Federation.
"China is strongly outraged by this unreasonable action by the U.S.", Geng told reporters at a daily news briefing.